Subquantum Particle Flux 
(c) Robert Neil Boyd

I think that the vacuum is composed of subquantum sized particles. The WKB approximation of the Eikonal equation applied to the Moebius transform solutions to Maxwell's equations show that the fineness of the medium of the vacuum is infinitely small. This implies that there is no lower limit to the size of particles in the vacuum.

The axion "field" may be viewed as a flux of these subquantum particles through the volume of effect of the field. The energetic components of the subquantum create an energetic environment in which the various elemental particles live. In this sense, E/M vacuum waves may actually be motions, activities of particles, in the subquantum substrate. This view is supported by Kaiverainen, Poponin, Chernetsky, Zazerskiy, and Shpilman, among others in the Russian science community. If this is true, we have turned the corner once again to a view that all is composed of a series of ever smaller building blocks of particles.

In the view of the Fermi-Popov-Ulam lattice model of the subquantum particle, the behaviors of the various subquantum species act in collective manners. We can see macroscopic behaviors of the vacuum, but we do not see sub-Plank behaviors, because we have not instrumentation to detect such behaviors. (Our technology to view the small stops well before the Plank Length.) The ocean wave we watch come majestically onto the shore is actually composed of many individual particles. Perhaps the same is true of waves propagating in the vacuum.

Also remember, it is a fact that the physical vacuum has a memory. What comprises that memory? Subquantum particles, in my opinion.

R.N. Boyd