Resolution of the Smarandache Paradoxes
(c) Robert Neil Boyd

[R. N. Boyd]:

I think some of the paradoxes may be resolved by a view that matter is infinitely subdivisible. See below:

[Paradox 1a]:

1) Sorites Paradox (associated with Eubulides of Miletus (fourth century B.C.): Our visible world is composed of a totality of invisible particles.
a) An invisible particle does not form a visible object, nor do two invisible particles, three invisible particles, etc. However, at some point, the collection of invisible particles becomes large enough to form a visible object, but there is apparently no definite point where this occurs."

[R. N. Boyd]:

The statement was true in the 4th century BC, but it is not true now. We can now measure the masses of a vast array of elemental particles. And we now know that there are such ratios as "moles" in chemistry telling us how many atoms are involved in the situation. So today we can make such determinations.

There are fabrication processes in the manufacture of integrated circuits that are capable of actually arranging very precisely, each atom in the fabrication. One example of these techniques is the use of epitaxal deposition, which is a one atom thick deposition of material. Screening and masking techniques allow atom-by-atom structuring to occur. These circuits can be small enough so that Cooper pairing is impossible and quantum phase-slips occur in the energized circuit.

However, the problem has now shifted into the domains which are smaller than our present ability to perceive with our instrumentations. Typically colliders are used to attempt to make measurements of the elemental particles, and recent data seems to be pointing strongly to a realm of particles even smaller than quarks, which may indeed comprise quarks, if such creatures exist in the first place. (What we are calling quarks may be something else entirely, perhaps organizations of yet smaller particles.)

I hold that there is a vaster array of entities smaller than the Planck length, and have developed methods for imaging such entities. The ZPE fluctuations cause curvatures of space on the order of 10e-66 cm., well smaller than the Planck length. What sort of entities are responsible for these enormous curvatures? I think that there are subquantum particles.

[Paradox 1b]:

b) A similar paradox is developed in an opposite direction. It is always possible to remove a particle from an object in such a way that what is left is still a visible object. However, repeating and repeating this process, at some point, the visible object is decomposed so that the left part becomes invisible, but there is no definite point where this occurs.

[R. N. Boyd]: There is, these days.

[Paradox 1b (Continued)]:

Generally, between and there is no clear distinction, no exact frontier. Where does really end and begin? One extends Zadeh's "fuzzy set" term to the "neutrosophic set" concept.

[R. N. Boyd]:

The boundary conditions are always very interesting. Those conditions which are both A and NOT A, yet neither A nor NOT A. Korzibski referred to these conditions as "NULL A". I call them boundary layers. They are a study in themselves, because boundary layers comprise a third state, and arise often.

[Paradox 2]:

2) Uncertainty Paradox: Large matter, which is under the 'determinist principle', is formed by a totality of elementary particles, which are under Heisenberg's 'indeterminacy principle'.

[R. N. Boyd]:

Uncertainty does not apply to monochromatic photons, nor indeed to any photonic system, by logical extension. See:

Indeterminacy only applies where there are elements of chance involved, most particularly involving systems of particles, which are QUITE susceptible to zitterbewegung, while photons remain largely unaffected by it.

[Paradox 3]:

3) Unstable Paradox: Stable matter is formed by unstable elementary particles.

[R. N. Boyd]:

Unstable? The lifetimes of protons and neutrons are enormous. (Electrons and positrons are another matter entirely.)

[Paradox 4]:

4) Short Time Living Paradox: Long time living matter is formed by very short time living elementary particles.

I don't see things this way.

Anyway, the way out of all this, is the realization that Consciousness is involved in all these processes and is the organization force which is responsible for many phenomena. Consciousness is not limited to human beings. In fact, it has been demonstrated that all observables have some manner of consciousness, however rudimentary. Consciousness is a holographic energetic having soliton-like [coherent] properties.

The best descriptions of the energetics of Consciousness arise from the works of V. Poponin (DNA Phantom Effect) and from a recent paper which shows that the radiation pattern of a symplectic E/M antenna is directly altered by the attention, intention, and emotional condition of the operators of the transmission facility. This direct influence of the symplectic E/M also causes a divergence in the quantum field, and thus we have evidence that there is a direct relation between the quantum field and Consciousness. Let us NEVER forget that there is a vast array of types of Consciousness, all of which will have some effect on the quantum field. Also see the works of Andrej Detela. For example:

I am working with some of the folks at PEAR to develop a modification of the Mindsong and Orion devices that will allow these circuits to map non-physical and disincarnate entities, as well as the energetics of the commonly known life-forms.