Refutation of Heisenberg Uncertainty
Regarding Photons

(c) Robert Neil Boyd

Photons are not subjects of Heisenberg Uncertainty. For example, if I am observing coherent monochromatic light, at any point in time along the line A-B, I can predict each and every one of these factors: Wavelength, Frequency, Phase, Momentum, and Position of the photons, with complete certainty.

The only limitation to accuracy of position is the time of emission accuracy which is related to the accuracy of the timer. NASA has developed a timer system accurate to 10 femtoseconds, with projections of improvements into the .001 femtosecond regime. Emission time is then not an issue over a premeasured course and thus location of the photon is known to within the accuracy limits of the timer.

We can know momentum with certainty because the momentum of a photon is directly related to its frequency. If you know the frequency, you know the momentum. The other parameters mentioned above follow along similar lines.

Thus, contrary to Heisenberg, I can know both the momentum and the position of the photon simultaneously, with absolute accuracy.

Hans Dehmelt won the Nobel Prize for experiments proving that the both the position and momentum of an electron could be measured simultaneously with perfect accuracy. Dehmelt kept an electron in an electromagnetic confinement system, holding it perfectly motionless for months on end, allowing for the simultaneous measurements to take place.

Since Dehmelt won the Nobel Prize for this, and since the above arguments show that monochromatic photons are in no regard uncertain, it seems that Heisenberg Uncertainty has been fairly well denied.

Robert Neil Boyd, Ph. D.

NASA references follow which will anticipate certain arguments:

See: http://cddisa.gsfc.nasa.gov/920_3/slr2000/transmitter_paper/transmitter_paper.html
Note equations [6] and [7a].
1 millidegree granularity and leading blank fill '292500' 46-57 Laser Range - in units of two way with a 1 picosecond granularity and leading blank fill ' 52035998000' 58-64 Pass RMS from the mean of raw range values minus the trend function, for acc.

 Title: Polarimetry of Scattered Light Using Coherent Laser Radar Document ID: 20000013003 Report #: None Sales Agency: CASI Hardcopy A01 CASI Microfiche A03 No Copyright Authors: Harris, M. (Defense Evaluation Research Agency) Journal: Tenth Biennial Coherent Laser Radar Technology and Applications Conference, Page: 207-210 Published: 19991101 Source: Defense Evaluation Research Agency (Malvern, United Kingdom) Pages: 4 Contract #: None Language: English

Abstract:

Measurement of the polarisation properties of light (polarimetry) is a powerful diagnostic tool with uses in many applications including ellipsometry. Evaluation of the ellipse for a pure polarization state conventionally involves passing the light through wave-plate and polarizer elements (which can be rotated either by mechanical or electro-optic means). Here, we will describe use of heterodyne techniques for evaluation of the polarization ellipse for scattered light. The horizontally and vertically polarized components of light scattered from depolarising surfaces were independently measured by a two-channel coherent laser radar. Because of the phase-sensitive nature of heterodyne detection, the relative phase of these components can be measured, and this gives all the information required to construct the polarization ellipse at any instant. The phenomenon of laser speckle ensures that the intensity and polarization state fluctuate as the beam scans across the surface of the target. The method described allows the time development of the polarization state to be followed in real time.

 Title: Ranging Performance of an FMCW Semiconductor Laser with Linearization of the Frequency Sweep Document ID: 20000013017 Report #: None Sales Agency: CASI Hardcopy A01 CASI Microfiche A03 No Copyright Authors: Karlsson, Christer J. (National Defense Research Establishment) Olsson, Fredrik A. A. (National Defense Research Establishment) Journal: Tenth Biennial Coherent Laser Radar Technology and Applications Conference, Page: 260-263 Published: 19991101 Source: National Defense Research Establishment (Linkoeping, Sweden) Pages: 4 Contract #: None Language: English

Abstract:

Semiconductor lasers are easy to modulate. By direct current modulation it is possible, for example, to frequency modulate the laser. There are various frequency modulation schemes that can be used. In radar applications, the most common is the linear chirp or triangular modulation function. When using a triangular modulation function, it is straightforward to deduce the range and radial speed of the target from frequency measurements. However, as the FM-response of a semiconductor laser generally is non-constant as a function of modulation frequency, the frequency of the laser will not be a linear chirp or triangular with time. The result is a signal spectrum that is broadened, resulting in a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and worse range and speed accuracies. Various methods of accounting for the non-constant FM-response have been reported. In this paper, we report measurements of the FM-response, magnitude and phase as a function of modulation frequency, of an InGaAsP-InP distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode. The results of the measurements are used to programme an arbitrary function generator which generates a modulating function that results in a linear frequency sweep of the laser. Laser radar experiments indicate that it is possible to achieve a narrow spectral width of the signal. The width is found to be fundamentally limited by the measurement time rather than the non-constant FM-response. This allows for high range and speed accuracies. Furthermore, it is clear that the phase is as important as the magnitude. It is important to note that the work presented here only concerns a laser radar that uses the monochromatic peak in the signal spectrum. There are no obstacles for using the complete signal spectrum. In fact, in order to achieve longer ranges, a straightforward way can be to use the entire spectrum.

 Title: Coherent Optical Receiver Engineering (CORE) Document ID: 20000013330 Report #: AD-A371148, AFRL-SN-RS-TR-1999-191 Sales Agency: CASI Hardcopy A13 CASI Microfiche A03 No Copyright Authors: Davis, R. Lodenkamper, R. Jung, T. Wickham, M. Lembo, L. Published: 19990901 Source: TRW, Inc. (Redondo Beach, CA United States) Pages: 295 Contract #: F30602-96-C-0273 Language: English

Abstract:

The Coherent Optical Receiver Engineering (CORE) program studied the development of an all optical RF receiver system and produced a prototype receiver. The bench top demonstration unit instantaneously channelizes 100 GHz of RF bandwidth with 1 GHz resolution and simultaneously translates the center frequency of all the channels to a common intermediate frequency band. The CORE channelizer preserves the signal's complex spectra and can be produced to a compact package that occupies less than 15 in 3. The coherent optical processor architectures identified in this study could satisfy a wide range of mission requirements and would be of value in a variety of military RF systems. The demonstrated dynamic range of 45 dB into a 1 GHz bandwidth is superior to the performance of existing electronic and acoustooptic approaches to signal channelization. The CORE architectures identified in this report utilize CW injection locking of a mode locked external cavity semiconductor laser to provide the local oscillator source for the heterodyne process.

 Title: Laser Beams And Images Adaptive Correction, Including Laser Guide Star Schemes For Formation And The Tip-Tilt Problem Document ID: 20000012694 Report #: AD-A370706, EOARD-SPC-98-4041 Sales Agency: CASI Hardcopy A09 CASI Microfiche A02 No Copyright Authors: Lukin, Vladimir P. Published: 19990101 Source: Academy of Sciences (Russia) (Tomsk, Russia) Pages: 190 Contract #: F61775-98-WE071 Language: English

Abstract:

This report results from a contract tasking Institute of Atmospheric Optics RAS as follows: The contractor will investigate optical wave propagation in the atmosphere, atmospheric propagation model development, and codes describing the operation of various components of an adaptive system. Especially they will develop a 4D computer code for calculating the parameters of optical waves propagating in both inhomogeneous layers and random-inhomogeneous stratified media under the conditions of thermal blooming.

 Title: Laser Beams And Images Adaptive Correction, Including Laser Guide Star Schemes For Formation And The Tip-Tilt Problem Document ID: 20000012694 Report #: AD-A370706, EOARD-SPC-98-4041 Sales Agency: CASI Hardcopy A09 CASI Microfiche A02 No Copyright Authors: Lukin, Vladimir P. Published: 19990101 Academy of Sciences (Russia) (Tomsk, Russia) Pages: 190 Contract #: F61775-98-WE071

Abstract:

This report results from a contract tasking Institute of Atmospheric Optics RAS as follows: The contractor will investigate optical wave propagation in the atmosphere, atmospheric propagation model development, and codes describing the operation of various components of an adaptive system. Especially they will develop a 4D computer code for calculating the parameters of optical waves propagating in both inhomogeneous layers and random-inhomogeneous stratified media under the conditions of thermal blooming.