Particle Physics -- An Empirical Approach
(c) Robert Neil Boyd

[R. N. Boyd]:

Regarding differing theories of Particle Physics:

I don't agree with everything Tony says regarding particle theory. I don't agree with Tony's agreements with Sarfatti regarding microtubulins as being the seat of Consciousness.

The approach that Unitel is taking is entirely different than the approach that Tony Smith and I have taken. Unitel has not even contemplated the Moebius transforms or graviphotons, to my knowledge.

There are no gluons. This is an artifice.

I think that something(s) which look(s) like the descriptions of a massive neutrino but which is NOT a neutrino, exists.

If you want [theoretical] consistency, you need to be empirical, and find out for yourself what is factual, actual. Don't take the word of some supposed "authority" that everything they say is absolutely true. Take my advice, and become an empiricist, and you'll be able to see through these muddied waters. Apply "The Penetrating Insight" to intellectual affairs. You'll be amazed. Refer to

Let's just ignore all this gluon-quark nonsense and "color force" and all the rest of it. Let us examine only that which is empirically observable and reliably repeatable. Quarks and gluons, and all the rest are not substantiated. As far as I am concerned, these are all mathematical fantasies. I want to deal with what is substantial, with what is actual. Quarks are theoretical fantasy IMO. I think that the whole of particle physics is a "house of cards" which will fall flat to the ground soon. Particle physics is rife with hypothesis regarding a dismal lack of empirical evidence for such "particles" as "gluons".

Below are my comments on the articles appearing in the Physical Review Online Archive.

[B. Goeksel]: Let's see what Dr. Fischbach is saying? I already wanted to look for the papers of Dr. Fischbach. So it is cool to have again a working Physical Review Online Archive: (link broken).

Long-range forces and neutrino mass
Ephraim Fischbach Physics Department
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1396

We explore the limits on neutrino mass which follow from a study of the long-range forces that arise from the exchange of massless or ultra-light neutrinos. Although the 2-body neutrino-exchange force is unobservably small, the many-body force can generate a very large energy density in neutron stars and white dwarfs. We discuss the novel features of neutrino-exchange forces which lead to large many- body effects, and present the formalism that allows these effects to be calculated explicitly in the Standard Model. After considering, and excluding, several possibilities for avoiding the unphysically large contributions from the exchange of massless neutrinos, we develop a formalism to describe the exchange of massive neutrinos. It is shown that the stability of both neutron stars and white dwarfs in the presence of many-body neutrino-exchange forces implies a lower bound, m|0.4 eV/c2 on the mass m of any neutrino.

Physics Reports -- Aug. 1989 -- vol.180, no.2, pp. 83-157
The dispersion theory of dispersion forces
Feinberg, G.; Sucher, J.; Au, C.-K.
Dept. of Phys., Columbia Univ., New York, NY, USA

The long-range forces that act between neutral atoms and molecules have been known as dispersion forces since the work of London (1930), who was the first to make manifest the connection between these forces and the dispersion of light by atoms, already guessed at by Newton (1952). The analysis and application of the analyticity properties of scattering amplitudes, developed several decades ago in the context of quantum field theory, is known as dispersion theory. The authors review the approach to dispersion forces based on dispersion theory. They give a general discussion of the concept of potential in quantum field theory and then show how a study of two- photon exchange amplitudes leads to a model-independent derivation and generalization of the formulas describing retarded dispersion forces for the case of two neutral atoms, first obtained by Casimir and Polder (1948). They then review later extensions to the interaction of a charged and a neutral system and recent work on the case where both systems are charged. The connection between the dispersion-theory approach and more conventional methods is described. They also illustrate the use of dispersion-theory techniques to study forces arising from two-neutrino exchange and two- meson exchange. The effect of dispersion forces on the energy levels of the Rydberg states of helium is briefly sketched. Finally, some open questions are mentioned

Physical Review D (Particles and Fields)
October 1, 1979
Volume 20, Issue 7 pp. 1717-1735

Is there a strong van der Waals force between hadrons?
G. Feinberg
Department of Physics, Columbia University
New York, New York 10027
J. Sucher
Laboratory for Solar Physics and Astronomy
Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Greenbelt, Maryland 20772

We study the question of the existence of long-range forces that are stronger than electromagnetic forces between ordinary hadrons. A phenomenological analysis is carried out which puts limits on the magnitude of the coupling constant lambda N entering a hypothetical interhadronic potential VN(r) [angle] (lambda N/r)(r0 /r)N – 1, with a length scale r0 [angle] 1 F and 1 ? N ? 7. Bounds on the value of lambda N are obtained from a variety of sources, including Eötvös- and Cavendish-type experiments, hyperfine structure of the hydrogen molecule, and the level structure of exotic atoms. The dispersion- theoretic approach to the asymptotic behavior of interparticle potentials is reviewed and used to analyze some of the theoretical implications of long-range forces. We stress the fact that long-range potentials require that the scattering amplitude F (s,t) is not analytic at t = 0. Such a lack of analyticity is often connected with physical states whose mass spectrum extends down to zero. The implications of this for quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the recent suggestions that QCD may imply the existence of a long-range force between hadrons are studied. A speculative scheme is considered which might yield such forces without requiring the existence of massless color gluons as observable particles.

Modern Physics Letters A -- 14 March 1991 -- vol.6, no.8, pp. 659-68 Nuclear polarization and the equivalence principle

Daniels, J.M.; Wei-Tou Ni
Dept. of Phys., Nat. Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan

The authors analyze the nuclear polarization of the spin-polarized Dy/sub 6/Fe/sub 2/ used in their two equivalence principle (EP) experiments. From this they infer the equivalence of polarized Dy in the Earth's gravitational field to be good to 10/sup -3/ and in the solar field to be good to 1.4r experimental scheme together with a discussion of perspectives

Phys. Rev. D 42, 977-991 (1990)

Experimental test of equivalence principle with polarized masses Rogers C. Ritter, Charles E. Goldblum, Wei–Tou Ni, George T. Gillies, and Clive C. Speake

Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22901

A torsion pendulum having masses with ~1022 and ~1023 polarized electrons is used to search for an anomalous spin interaction of macroscopic range. Competition from magnetic forces is reduced by using Dy-Fe masses (which exhibit orbital compensation of the electron intrinsic spin), combined with light magnetic shielding, so that the sensitivity is better than one-tenth of a percent of the gravitational force. Fluctuations set the overall experimental limit at about 8 times this level. Interpretation of our null result sets limits on electron spin interactions and on moments which are not of electromagnetic origin. In terms of a standard dipole-dipole form the result is (1.6±6.9) x 10-12 of the interaction strength between the magnetic moments of the electrons. Comparisons are made with theoretical predictions for very light exchange particles.

Particle Physics from Stars
Authors: G.Raffelt (MPP, Munich)
Comments: 46 pages, including 14 eps figures, prepared for vol.49 of the Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science (1999)
Journal-ref: Ann.Rev.Nucl.Part.Sci. 49 (1999) 163-216

Low-mass particles such as neutrinos, axions, other Nambu-Goldstone bosons and gravitons are produced in the hot and dense interior of stars. Therefore, astrophysical arguments constrain the properties of these particles in ways which are often complementary to cosmological arguments and to laboratory experiments. This review provides an update on the most important stellar-evolution limits and discusses them in the context of other information from cosmology and laboratory experiments.

Fourth-order self-energy of a neutron star due to massive neutrino exchange

We calculate the self-energy of a neutron star to fourth-order in the Fermi constant GF, arising from neutrino exchange to one loop. We assume the neutron star is comprised entirely of neutrons and use the low-energy Lagrangian describing the interaction between neutrons and massive Dirac neutrinos. The calculation presented here derives from a more rigorous formalism than that used in previous work on the four- body self-energy, and consequently the results differ slightly. We have determined that the fourth-order self-energy, like the recently calculated second-order self-energy, is positive and dependent on the neutron-neutron hard core radius. Importantly, we also show that the fourth-order contribution is greater than the second order. We further demonstrate that, in contrast with the recently calculated vacuum energy shift in which the neutron field is taken to be external, the four-body self-energy decreases in magnitude as the neutrino mass is increased. This decrease of the self-energy as the neutrino mass increases was also the case in the second-order self- energy. The implications of these new findings are discussed.

Vacuum energy for a massive Dirac neutrino propagating in a neutron medium

We calculate the energy acquired by the vacuum due to both a massless and massive Dirac neutrino propagating in an external neutron field, utilizing the quantum field theoretic approach of Schwinger. This method computes the vacuum energy to all orders in the coupling, using the interaction Hamiltonian for a neutrino in the presence of an external background of neutrons. To verify our results, we develop heuristic arguments to compute the energy of the neutrino condensate arising from a neutron-induced chiral potential well. The results for the massive case are new, and are discussed in some detail. ©2000 The American Physical Society

[R. N. Boyd]: What if there are no neutrinos?????

What if the interactions which are attributed to neutrinos are actually intermediated by subquantum particles? Think about it... Let us give to the subquantum, all of these attributes which have been given to these hypothetical particles such as "gluons" and "quarks". Then, everything still works. (I think it works better. More on this later. Or you could contemplate what might make me say that the subquantum particle view works better than the "gluon/quark" view.)

Deflection of Spacecraft Trajectories as a New Test of General Relativity

We derive a simple formula which gives the general relativistic deflection of a spacecraft, idealized as a point mass, for all values of the asymptotic speed V (0V1). Using this formula we suggest a new test of general relativity (GR) which can be carried out during a proposed interstellar mission that involves a close pass of the Sun. We show that, with foreseeable improvements in spacecraft tracking sensitivity, the deflection of a spacecraft's trajectory in the gravitational field of the Sun could provide a new test of GR.

[R. N. Boyd]: GR fails. Ask Vesselin Petkov about this.

New Limits on the Couplings of Light Pseudoscalars from Equivalence Principle Experiments

The exchange of light pseudoscalar quanta between fermions leads to long-range spin-dependent forces in order g2, where g is the pseudoscalar-fermion coupling constant. We demonstrate that laboratory bounds on the Yukawa couplings of pseudoscalars to nucleons can be significantly improved using results from recent equivalence principle experiments, which are sensitive to the spin- independent long-range forces that arise in order g4 from two- pseudoscalar exchange.

Constraints on Light Pseudoscalars Implied by Tests of the Gravitational Inverse-Square Law

The exchange of light pseudoscalars between fermions leads to a spin- independent potential in order g4, where g is the Yukawa pseudoscalar- fermion coupling constant. This potential gives rise to detectable violations of both the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and the gravitational inverse-square law (ISL), even if g is quite small. We show that when previously derived WEP constraints are combined with those arising from ISL tests, a direct experimental limit on the Yukawa coupling of light pseudoscalars to neutrons can be inferred for the first time (g/41.6×10-7), along with a new (and significantly improved) limit on the coupling of light pseudoscalars to protons.

[R. N. Boyd]: I said this on this forum last year. Equivalence fails.

Short-Range Test of the Equivalence Principle
J. H. Gundlach, G. L. Smith, E. G. Adelberger, B. R. Heckel, and H. E. Swanson

Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195

We rotated a 3 ton 238U attractor around a compact torsion balance and compared the accelerations of Cu and Pb toward U. We found that aCu-aPb = (-0.7±5.7) x 10-13 cm/s2, compared to the 9.8 x 10-5 cm/s2 gravitational acceleration toward the attractor. Our results set new constraints on equivalence-principle violating interactions with Yukawa ranges down to 1 cm and rule out an earlier suggestion of a Yukawa interaction coupled predominantly to N-Z.


David Ehrenstein, American Physical Society

Introductions to the Focus stories of the past week;

visit for the complete stories.


Magnetic field lines do not like to bend. When you try to press two magnets together the wrong way, you feel this tendency directly--the field lines resist being squashed to the sides. This magnetic "tension" may have surprising effects when space itself warps, according to a paper in the 11 June PRL. The author finds that when spacetime bends in response to matter, the magnetic field lines push back and try to flatten spacetime. This "magnetocurvature" effect would be strongest when spacetime is most strongly curved--near neutron stars and black holes, and in the very early Universe. Magnetocurvature effects might be measurable in gravitational radiation reaching Earth; they also seem to exclude some theories of the Universe's earliest moments.
(Christos G. Tsagas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5421.

Link to the paper: COMPLETE Focus story at

[R. N. Boyd]: Magnetism causes curvatures of space. I'm still looking for that Whittaker reference. In the meantime, can you contemplate what it would mean if this statement were true.


Listen to your radio on a long car trip, and you'll hear the signal become garbled by noise on competing frequencies. Frequency competition is not just a problem for receiving signals: Microwave sources used in telecommunications produce extra frequencies that compete with the broadcast frequency. A paper in the 11 June PRL details a new way to squash the competition using a so-called photonic band gap structure. The periodic array of rods may be the best way to create narrow, high-frequency microwave signals for everything from satellites to cell phones. (J. R. Sirigiri et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5628. Link to the paper: COMPLETE Focus story at

[R. N. Boyd]: Has to do with periodicities in the generally anisotropic physical vacuum. I do not think that vacuum periodicities are due to either quantization OR some kind of "metric". I reference lattice structurings of the physical vacuum.

Also from next week's PRL (story from AIP's Physics News Update):

Story at (this link is now broken).
(X. Chavanne et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5506)

[R. N. Boyd]: Resonance. Good reference for nanotechnology!