**(c) Robert Neil Boyd**

There is no data to indicate that the infinite volume universe is possessed of the property of having any overall net charge. The data seems to strongly support the view that, overall, the universe has a net charge imbalance of ZERO.

On another topic, to date, there has never been sufficient evidence to convince me of the existence of black holes.

You can believe whatever you want to believe, but the evidence is not there, and the math tells me it can't happen. First, no sensible account of a "black hole" is possible in Newtonian theory. Second, recall the mathematical demonstration of Professor Kiehn which I posted on this topic last week.

Kiehn showed that, based on Cartan's theory [nonmetrical general relativity plus torsion], black holes can't exist. (Cartan's theory is the only nonmetrical formulation of gravity which agrees with experiment and gives results indistinguishable from those of general relativity. Cartan's theory is also completely consistent with all of the NON-gravitational laws of physics. Cartan's theory is vastly more complete than relativity theory, and is self-consistent.)

Now, let me pose a small question for you. Considering that the force of Coulomb repulsion is enormously stronger than the attractive force of gravity, what is the minimum mass which will generate sufficient gravitational force to overcome the Coulomb repulsion between two electrons or two protons?

Now, how many electrons and protons do you suppose might be in a single star? Compute the mass required to overcome such enormous Coulomb repulsion forces as exist in the entity of a star. (Hint. The calculations are related to calculations of gravitational collapse of stellar bodies into white dwarfs, and thence into "neutron stars". What happens to the property of charge during the collapse event?)

On another topic [negative energy], it can be shown from vector gravitation field studies [Wheeler], that gravitational waves carry negative energy. By this, it seems that "positive" gravitation and "negative" gravitation remain in a condition of net zero gravitational "charge", when contemplating the excursions of positive and negative gravitational components in the gravitational wave averaged over time. This is very similar to the excursions of the positive and negative charges in an E/M wave, interestingly.

There is an implication here that gravitational excursions might be controllable by gravitational "circuits", analogous to electronic circuits, which could lead to a controllable form of negative gravity.